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1 Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 26th May 2009, 10:49 pm



Last edited by aparichit on 27th May 2009, 12:42 am; edited 11 times in total

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2 Re: Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 26th May 2009, 10:50 pm

Code:

/*How do you initialize array of objects which is of class having argumented constructors?*/
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
struct try1
{
private:
 int try_x,try_y;
 public:
  try1(){}
  try1(int x,int y)
  {
  try_x=x;
  try_y=y;
  }
 
  void display()
  {
  cout << "x="<<<"\t"<<
  }
};
int main()
{
try1 jot_ko[2]={try1(0,1),try1(1,3)};
for (int i=0;i<2;i++)
 jot_ko[i].display();
return 0;
}



Last edited by aparichit on 26th May 2009, 11:26 pm; edited 4 times in total

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3 Re: Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 26th May 2009, 11:16 pm

Code:
/* Program to add two objects using constant member function
 Constant member function is a function which do not have any rights to modify the data members of a class.

Syntax for Constant member function is          return_type Function_name(arguments) const;
*/

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

class Addition{
    int feet;
    float inches;
    public:
        Addition(){ // Default Constructor
            feet=5; // Initializing the value of feet and inches to 5
            inches=5;
        }
        void get_distance(){    // Function to take distances from the user
            cout<<"Enter Feet"<
            cin>>feet;
            cout<<"Enter Inches"<
            cin>>inches;
        }
        void show_distance()
        { 
 // Function to show distances when the function is called
            cout<<"After Addition of the two objects:"<
            cout<<"Distance = "<<<" feet "<<<" inches"<
        }
        Addition add(Addition) const;    // Declaration of constant member function
};

Addition Addition::add(Addition A)const
{  // Defination of constant member function
    Addition B;
    //feet+=A.feet; 
  /* Cannot modify feet as it is data member of class and the function is constant.*/
    B.feet=feet+A.feet;
    B.inches=inches+A.inches;    // Here the Data member of class is not modified
    while(1){
        if(B.inches<12)
            break;
        B.inches-=12;
        B.feet++;
    }
    return B;
}

int main(){
    Addition A1,A2,A3;  // Default constructor called
    A1.get_distance();      // Function call to get distance in A1
    A2.get_distance();      // Function call to get distance in A2
    A3=A1.add(A2);          // Function call to add members of A1 and A2 and assign in A3
    A3.show_distance(); // Show the distance assigned in A3
    getchar();
    return 0;
}

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4 Re: Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 26th May 2009, 11:59 pm

Code:
[b]// Static Data members are those Data members that are accessed once at the first function call and then the line is not compiled next
// Program to illustrate the use of static data members

// This program finds the sum of varialbles entered by user until he/she enters zero

#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

float count(int x){
    static int i=0; // Static data members initializes to 0
    static int sum=0;
    sum+=x;
    if(x==0){
        cout<<endl<<"The total Sum is "<<sum<<endl;
        cout<<endl<<"The average is "<<float(sum)/i<<endl;

    }
    i++;
    return i;
}

int main(){
    int num,total;
    do{
        cout<<"Enter number"<<endl;
        cin>>num;  // Taking the data from the user
        total=count(num);  // Sending the data to the function to calculate the sum
    }while(num!=0);
    cout<<endl<<"Total number of numbers entered = "<<total-1<<endl;
    getchar();
    return 0;
}

// this pointer
// This is a program that uses this pointer to return the address of the calling object.

// Syntax to return the calling function            return *this;

#include <iostream>
#include <cstring>

using namespace std;

class Employee{
    char name[25];
    long int salary;
    char keyboard_buffer[2];
    public:
        Employee(){}    // Default Constructor
        void get_information(){    // Function defination to get information of the object
            cout<<"Enter Name of Employee"<<endl;
            cin.getline(name,20);
            cout<<"Enter salary"<<endl;
            cin>>salary;
            cin.getline(keyboard_buffer,2);    // To avoid assigning ENTER in the next name variable " NOT NECESSARY IN EXAM"
        }
        void show_information(){    // Function defination to show the information of object having higher salary
            cout<<endl<<"Employee having higher Salary is:"<<endl;
            cout<<"Name\t\t"<<name<<endl;
            cout<<"Salary\t\tRs. "<<salary<<endl;
        }
        Employee compare(Employee); // Function to compare the salary of employees
};

Employee Employee::compare(Employee em){        // Function defination of comparing function
    Employee EM;
    Employee em1;
    if(salary<em.salary)
        return em;  // Returns object em in case of salary of em is higher
    if(salary>em.salary)
        return *this;      // Returns the calling object if calling object has the higher salary than the passing object
    else{
        strcpy(EM.name,"Sorry Salary are equal");  // If salary of both employees are same then the message is displayed
        EM.salary=salary;
        return EM;
    }
}

int main(){
    Employee em1,em2,em3;
    em1.get_information();      // Gets information of object em1
    em2.get_information();      // Gets information of object em2
    em3=em1.compare(em2);      // Function call to compare the salary of two objects
    em3.show_information(); // Displays the information of employee of higher salary
    getchar();
    return 0;
}

[/b]

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5 Re: Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 27th May 2009, 12:33 am

Code:
// Overriding member function means:
//  Using member function in a derived class that have the same name as those in base class.

#include <iostream>
#include <cstring>

using namespace std;

class base{ // Base class
    protected:
        enum {arr=3};  // defining constant of integer type. for this purpose enum is used
        char name[arr][20]; // array of size 20 and can take arr(3) argument
        int num;
            public:
                base(){
                    num=-1;
                }
                void enter(char str[]){    // function which takes a string argument in name[0], name[1] and name[2]
                    strcpy(name[++num],str);
                }
                char* get(){    // function which returns string argument as name[2], name[1] and name[0]
                    return name[num--];
                }
};

class derived: public base{ // Derived class
    public:
        void enter(char str[]){ // function having same name as that in base class and does the same thing
            if (num>=arr-1){        // concept of function overriding
                cout<<"Nothing To Enter"<<endl;
                exit(1);
            }
            base::enter(str);
        }
        char* get(){    // function having same name as that in base class and does the same thing
            if(num<0){  // concept of function overriding
                cout<<"Nothing To Print"<<endl;
                exit(1);
            }
            return base::get();
        }
};

int main(){
    derived obj;    // Default construcot called
    obj.enter("Pradeep");
    obj.enter("Sudeep");
    obj.enter("Rohit");
    http://obj.enter("shyam");  // if this line is active then error message is displayed
    cout<<obj.get()<<endl;  // Displays the last enterd element
    cout<<obj.get()<<endl;  // Displays the second last entered element
    cout<<obj.get()<<endl;  // Displays the first entered element
    getchar();
    return 0;
}

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6 Re: Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 27th May 2009, 12:34 am

Code:
// Static Function is used to access static variables
// Static Function cannot access other variables

// Syntax for static function          static return_type Function_name(arguments);

#include <iostream>
#include <math.h>

using namespace std;

class square{
    static double number;  // Declaration of Static Variable
    static int i;      // Declaration of Static Variable
    int j;
    public:
        square(){  // Constructo that squares the value of 'i' and then increases it by1
            number=pow(i,2);
            j=i;
            i++;
        }
        static void show_number(){  // Function that shows the number when function is called
            cout<<"The number is "<<number<<endl;  // Static Function using only the static variable
        }
        void show_sequence(){  // Function to show sequence when function is called
            cout<<j<<"\t";
        }
};

double square::number=1;      // Declaration of Static Variable 'number' to 1
int square::i=1;            // Declaration Static Variable 'i' to 1

int main(){
    square obj1;    // constructor is called and the square of 1 is assigned to number
    square::show_number();  // Function call to show number i.e, it displays 1
    square obj2,obj3;  // Constructor is called and square of 2 and 3 is assigned in obj2 and obj3 respectively
    square::show_number();  // Function call to show number i.e, id displays 9(squar of 3)
    cout<<endl<<"The sequence is:"<<endl;
    obj1.show_sequence();  // Function call to show sequence of obj1 i.e, 1
    obj2.show_sequence();  // Function call to show sequence of obj1 i.e, 2
    obj3.show_sequence();  // Function call to show sequence of obj1 i.e, 3
    getchar();
    return 0;
}

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7 Re: Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 6th June 2009, 4:27 pm

Formatted

avatar
Administrator
// Program to show the use of Virtual Base Class
// Base Class are made virtual in order to prevent form ambiguity

// Here if the Base Class was not made virtual by the Derived class then the following this would have happened
// 1. The branch class takes one copy of information of leaves class
// 2. The stem class also takes one copy of information of leaves class
// 3. The branch and stem class is made public to root class and takes each copy of information from branch and stem class.
// 4. When the function get_information() is called then there occurs an ambiguity
// 5. Ambiguity of which information to show as the root contains two infromation each from stem and branch class

Code:

#include <iostream>
#include <cstring>

using namespace std;

class leaves{
    protected:  // data types must be made protected to be accessed in public inheritance
        char information[30];
        public:
            leaves(){  // Default constructor which assigns the string in 'information'
                strcpy(information,"Provide me water to make food");
            }
};

class branch : virtual public leaves{};        // This class makes the Base class virtual
class stem : virtual public leaves{};          // This class also makes the Base class virtual
// if branch and stem classes are not made virtual then ambiguity occurs
class root : public branch, public stem{
    public:
    root(){}
    char* get_information(){
        return information;    // No ambiguity because it return only one copy of leavees information due to virtual base class
    }
};

int main(){
    root R; // Default constructor of root class is called
    cout<<R.get_information()<<endl;    // information of leaves class is inherited by root class and then displayed
    getchar();
    return 0;
}


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8 Re: Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 6th June 2009, 4:30 pm

Formatted

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Administrator
// Program to illustrate the use of virtual base class

Code:
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

class grand_father{ // Base class
    protected:  // all data members must be made protected to acees in case of public inheritance
        char g_name[20];    // Base class data members
        char g_profession[20];
        public:
            grand_father(){ // constructor which assign the strings in 'g_name' and 'g_profession'
                strcpy(g_name,"Parshuram Subedi");
                strcpy(g_profession,"Ex. British Army");
            }
};

// derived class
class father: virtual public grand_father{  // Base class is made virtual in this class
    protected:  // all data members must be made protected to acees in case of public inheritance
        char f_name[20];    // Derived class data members
        char f_profession[30];
        public:
            father(){  // constructor which assigns the strings in 'f_name' and 'f_profession'
                strcpy(f_name,"Hari Prasad Subedi");
                strcpy(f_profession,"Social Worker (N.R.C.S)");
            }
};

// derived class
class mother: virtual public grand_father{  // Base class is made virtual here too
    protected:  // all data members must be made protected to acees in case of public inheritance
        char m_name[20];    // Derived class data members
        char m_profession[20];
        public:
            mother(){  // constructor which assigns strings in 'm_name' and 'm_profession'
                strcpy(m_name,"Bhawani Devi Subedi");
                strcpy(m_profession,"House wife");
            }
};

// accessing class
class myself: public father, public mother{ // both derived class are made public in this class
    char name[20];                          // so that it can access the data members of both derived classes
    char profession[20];                    // as well as base class as both derived class had made the base class public & (virtual)
    public:
        myself(){  // constructor which assigns strings in 'name' and 'profession'
            strcpy(name,"Rohit Subedi");
            strcpy(profession,"Student");
        }
        void show_information(){    // Function to display infromation when function is called
            cout<<"Grand Father"<<endl<<"------------"<<endl<<"Name\t\t"<<g_name<<endl<<"Profession\t"<<g_profession<<endl; // Base class members accessed
            cout<<endl<<endl<<"Father"<<endl<<"------"<<endl<<"Name\t\t"<<f_name<<endl<<"Profession\t"<<f_profession<<endl; // derived class members accessed
            cout<<endl<<endl<<"Mother"<<endl<<"------"<<endl<<"Name\t\t"<<m_name<<endl<<"Profession\t"<<m_profession<<endl; // derived class members accessed
            cout<<endl<<endl<<"Myself"<<endl<<"------"<<endl<<"Name\t\t"<<name<<endl<<"Profession\t"<<profession<<endl;
        }
};

int main(){
    myself m;  // constructo of myself class is called. As every class are public so constructor of every class are called
                // and name and profession of each class are assigned
    m.show_information();  // function call to display information of object 'm'
    getchar();
    return 0;
}

// if both derived class have not made the base class virtual then there will be the case of ambiguity
// as the base class members are accessed by derived class and the accessing class will get confused in the base class member accessing
// as it derives two base class members.


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9 Re: Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 6th June 2009, 4:33 pm

Formatted

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Administrator
// Program that gives the information of Virtual class and how it is used
// Virtual class must be made in the base class and same function must be there in all derived class

// Syntax for the virtual class is virtual return_type Function_name()

// This Program takes information of Properietor and Employee of different class
// And then display the content of the object of those class by virtual funtion

// pointer of base class pointed to derived class calls the virtual function of that derived class


Code:
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

class people{      // Abstract Class ( Base Class ) as its object has not been created
    public:
        virtual void show(){        // Virtual Function named show()
            cout<<endl<<"Sorry No Information"<<endl;
        }
        // virtual void show()==0      // Pure virtual function
};

class Properietor : public people{      // Derived Class One
    char name[20];
    double property;
    public:
        Properietor(){} // Default constructor
        void get_data(){    // Function to get information from the user
            cout<<"Enter Name of Properietor"<<endl;
            cin.getline(name,20);
            cout<<"Enter Property"<<endl;
            cin>>property;
        }
        void show(){// Contains same function of virtual class in Base Class which shows the information when function is called
            cout<<endl<<"Properietor Information";
            cout<<endl<<"Name\t\t"<<name<<endl;
            cout<<"Property\tRs. "<<property<<endl;
        }
};

class employee : public people{ // Derived Class Two
    char name[20];
    long int salary;
    char keyboard_buffer[2];
    public:
        employee(){}    // Default constructor
        void get_information(){ // Function to get information from the user
            cin.getline(keyboard_buffer,2); // To avoid assigning 'enter' in name of employee "NOT NECESSARY IN EXAM"
            cout<<endl<<"Enter Name of Employee"<<endl;
            cin.getline(name,20);
            cout<<"Enter Salary"<<endl;
            cin>>salary;
        }
        void show(){// Contains same function of virtual class in Base Class which shows the information when function is called
            cout<<endl<<"Employee Information";
            cout<<endl<<"Name\t\t"<<name<<endl;
            cout<<"salary\t\tRs. "<<salary<<endl;
        }
};

int main(){
    people* ptr;    // Base Class Pointer
    Properietor PR; // Default constructor of properietor class is called
    employee EM;    // Default constructor of employee class is called

    PR.get_data();  // Function call to get information of properietor
    EM.get_information();  // Function call to get infromation of employee

    ptr = &PR;      // Base Class Pointer pointing the address of Derived Class One
    ptr->show();    // Function named show() of Derived Class One is called

    ptr = &EM;      // Base Class Pointer pointing the address of Derived Class Two
    ptr->show();    // Function named show() of Derived Class Two is called
    // If the function in base class is not made virtual then both the times (i.e, ptr->show) the function in base class is called
    getchar();
    return 0;
}


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10 Re: Learn c++ program (Covers 10 chapters) on 6th June 2009, 4:34 pm

Formatted

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Administrator
// Program to show the constructor and destructor are displayed in reversed order

Code:
#include <iostream>

using namespace std;

class Base{
    public:
        Base(){ // constructor of base class
            cout<<"Constructor of Base Class"<<endl;
        }
        ~Base(){    // Destructor of base class
            cout<<"Destructor of Base Class"<<endl;
        }
};

class Derived1:public Base{
    public:
        Derived1(){ // constructor of derived1 class
            cout<<"Constructor of Derived1 Class"<<endl;
        }
        ~Derived1(){    // Destructor of derived1 class
            cout<<"Destructor of Derived1 Class"<<endl;
        }
};

class Derived2:public Derived1{
    public:
        Derived2(){ // constructor of derived2 class
            cout<<"Constructor of Derived2 Class"<<endl;
        }
        ~Derived2(){    // destructor of derived2 class
            cout<<endl<<"Destructor of Derived2 Class"<<endl;
        }
};

int main(){
    {// scope of object obj starts
    Derived2 obj;
    // when above statement is compiled derived2 class is accessed but derived1 class is public to derived2
    // so compiler flows to derived1 class but base class is public to derived1 class so compiler flows to base class
    // Then constructor of base class is displayed then derived1 constructor and finally derived2 constructor is displayed
    }// scope ends i.e, to say destructor is called
    // Destructor is called in reverse order of that of constructor
    getchar();
    return 0;
}


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