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Computer software engineers apply the principles of computer science
and mathematical analysis to the design, development, testing, and
evaluation of the software and systems that make computers work. The
tasks performed by these workers evolve quickly, reflecting new areas
of specialization or changes in technology, as well as the preferences
and practices of employers. (A separate section on computer hardware
engineers appears in the engineers section of the Handbook.)



Software engineers can be involved in the design and development of
many types of software, including computer games, word processing and
business applications, operating systems and network distribution, and
compilers, which convert programs to machine language for execution on
a computer.


Computer software engineers begin by analyzing users' needs,
and then design, test, and develop software to meet those needs. During
this process they create the detailed sets of instructions, called
algorithms, that tell the computer what to do. They also may be
responsible for converting these instructions into a computer language,
a process called programming or coding, but this usually is the
responsibility of computer programmers. (A separate section on computer programmers appears elsewhere in the Handbook.)
Computer software engineers must be experts in operating systems and
middleware to ensure that the underlying systems will work properly.



Computer applications software engineers analyze users' needs
and design, construct, and maintain general computer applications
software or specialized utility programs. These workers use different
programming languages, depending on the purpose of the program. The
programming languages most often used are C, C++, and Java, with
Fortran and COBOL used less commonly. Some software engineers develop
both packaged systems and systems software or create customized
applications.



Computer systems software engineers coordinate the construction,
maintenance, and expansion of an organization's computer systems.
Working with the organization, they coordinate each department's
computer needs-ordering, inventory, billing, and payroll recordkeeping,
for example-and make suggestions about its technical direction. They
also might set up the organization's intranets-networks that link
computers within the organization and ease communication among various
departments.


Systems software engineers also work for companies that
configure, implement, and install the computer systems of other
organizations. These workers may be members of the marketing or sales
staff, serving as the primary technical resource for sales workers.
They also may help with sales and provide customers with technical
support. Since the selling of complex computer systems often requires
substantial customization to meet the needs of the purchaser, software
engineers help to identify and explain needed changes. In addition,
systems software engineers are responsible for ensuring security across
the systems they are configuring.

Computer software engineers often work as part of a team that
designs new hardware, software, and systems. A core team may comprise
engineering, marketing, manufacturing, and design people, who work
together to release a product.



Job Outlook


Job prospects should be excellent, as computer software
engineers are expected to be among the fastest-growing occupations
through the year 2016.



Employment change. Employment of computer software
engineers is projected to increase by 38 percent over the 2006 to 2016
period, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. This
occupation will generate about 324,000 new jobs, over the projections
decade, one of the largest employment increases of any occupation.


Employment growth will result as businesses and other
organizations adopt and integrate new technologies and seek to maximize
the efficiency of their computer systems. Competition among businesses
will continue to create incentive for sophisticated technological
innovations, and organizations will need more computer software
engineers to implement these changes.


Demand for computer software engineers will also increase as
computer networking continues to grow. For example, expanding Internet
technologies have spurred demand for computer software engineers who
can develop Internet, intranet, and World Wide Web applications.
Likewise, electronic data-processing systems in business,
telecommunications, government, and other settings continue to become
more sophisticated and complex. Implementing, safeguarding, and
updating computer systems and resolving problems will fuel the demand
for growing numbers of systems software engineers.


New growth areas will also continue to arise from rapidly
evolving technologies. The increasing uses of the Internet, the
proliferation of Web sites, and mobile technology such as wireless
Internet have created a demand for a wide variety of new products. As
individuals and businesses rely more on hand-held computers and
wireless networks, it will be necessary to integrate current computer
systems with this new, more mobile technology.


In addition, information security concerns have given rise to
new software needs. Concerns over "cyber security" should result in
businesses and government continuing to invest heavily in software that
protects their networks and vital electronic infrastructure from
attack. The expansion of this technology in the next 10 years will lead
to an increased need for computer engineers to design and develop the
software and systems to run these new applications and integrate them
into older systems.


As with other information technology jobs, outsourcing of
software development to other countries may temper somewhat employment
growth of computer software engineers. Firms may look to cut costs by
shifting operations to foreign countries with lower prevailing wages
and highly educated workers. Jobs in software engineering are less
prone to being offshored than are jobs in other computer specialties,
however, because software engineering requires innovation and intense
research and development.


Source: U.S. Department of Labor

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SOURCE : KANTIPUR NEWS
Posted on: 2009-04-16



प्रविधिको विकासले मान्छेलाई छिन छिनमै जोडिरहेको छ । नयाँ पुस्ताको त झन् के कुरा ? त्यही भएर होला उनीहरूको पछिल्लो रोजाइ कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङमा तानिएको छ ।

'हो त', ह्वाइटहाउस कलेजका कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङ स्नातक अन्तिम वर्षका अमित अग्रवालले भने, 'जागिर पाउन पनि गाह्रो हुन्न ।' कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङ पढेकै कारण उनलाई एउटा कम्पनीले जागिरको अफर पनि गरिसकेको छ ।

त्यस्तै अवसर जुट्दै छ काठमाडौं विश्वविद्यालय -केयू) मा कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङ स्नातक अन्तिम वर्षकी मोहिता जोशीलाई पनि । 'अहिले इन्टर्नसिपमा', सफ्टवेयर कम्पनी डी टु हक आईमा जाने तयारी गरिरहेकी यी लजालुले भनिन्, 'जागिर नै पाउन पनि सक्छु ।' त्यस कम्पनीले यसअघि यसरी इन्टर्नसिपमा गएका धेरैलाई रोजगारी दिएको छ ।

मोहिताका सबै साथी इन्टर्नसिप गर्न सफ्टवेयर कम्पनी जाने तयारीमा छन् । यसबाट उनीहरूले सीपको परीक्षामात्र दिने छैनन् केही पारिश्रमिक पनि पाउने छन् । 'पकेट खर्चसम्म पाइन्छ', उनले भनिन्, 'पर्फर्मेन्स देखाउन सके जागिरे पनि ।' मिहिनेत र सिर्जनशीलता कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरहरूको चुनौती हो । उनीहरू अब त्यही चुनौती सामना गर्न तम्तयार भएका छन् । यी धरानेमात्रै होइन उनका साथीहरू खुश्वु र विनोद पनि त्यही मेसोमा

छन् । उनीहरू स्नातक तेस्रो र चौथो वर्षका विद्यार्थी हुन् । 'राम्रो विषय हो,' कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङबारे उनीहरूको प्रतिक्रिया थियो, 'रोजगारीका लागि सजिलै अवसर पाइन्छ, विदेश जान झन् सजिलो ।' त्यही हूलमा रहेका विनोद ज्ञवाली, विश्वास भट्ट, मनीष सैंजू, कुमारप्रसाद दाहाल, विनयराज श्रेष्ठ, विनोद अधिकारी, आसरा श्रेष्ठ, निखिल अग्रवाल, विनोद बरालले पनि उनीहरूको कुरामा हो हो मिलाए ।

हूलबाट पर कान्तिपुर इन्जिनियरिङ कलेजमा भेटिएका ध्रुव खनालको तर्क पनि उनीहरूको भन्दा फरक थिएन । स्नातक अन्तिम वर्षको परीक्षा परिणामको पर्खाइमा रहेका उनले भने, 'देशमा भएका सफ्टवेयर कम्पनीलाई पनि दक्ष मान्छे चाहिएको छ, प्रविधि बजार विस्तार भएजसरी दक्ष जनशक्ति विकास हुन सकेको छैन ।' बीई तेस्रो वर्षका विनयराज श्रेष्ठको तीन सदस्यीय टोलीले कबड्डी खेलको सफ्टवेयर बनायो । टोलीका विनयराज, विनोद अधिकारी र कुमार दाहालको मेहनत खेर नजालाजस्तो छ । 'कसैले किनिदियो भने', उनीहरूले भने । कबड्डी नेपालको राष्ट्रिय खेल हो ।

कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियर विद्यार्थीले गरेको आविस्कार बेलाबेला हुने प्रतिस्पर्धामा पनि उत्कृष्ट हुने गरेको छ । जस्तो यसै पाली केयूले गरेको प्रतिष्पर्धामा विभिन्न आठ क्याम्पसका विद्यार्थी निर्मित १४ वटा सफ्टवेयर थिए । पहिलो विनयराजको टोली भयो र दोस्रो स्थानमा एडभान्स इन्जिनियरिङ कलेजले हात पार्‍यो । उनीहरूले न्युरोलोजी रोग पहिचानसम्बन्धी सफ्टवेयर बनाएका थिए । 'यस्तो प्रतिस्पर्धाले पढेको कुरा व्यवहारमा उतार्न सजिलो बनाउँदो रहेछ,' ह्वाइटहाउस कलेजका अमितले भने ।

नयाँ कुराको आविस्कार गर्ने र सिक्ने इच्छा भएकालाई कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङ आकर्षण बन्दै गएको छ जुन उनीहरूको उत्तरले पनि प्रस्ट्याउँछ । 'नयाँनयाँ कुरा सिक्न पाइन्छ', कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङ रोजाइबारे मनीष, निखिल, विश्वास भट्टको प्रतिक्रिया थियो, 'त्यसमा रुचि जरुरी छ । राम्रो आम्दानी हुन्छ र सामाजिक प्रतिष्ठा बढ्छ । मिहिनेत त गर्नैपर्छ ।'
पन्ध्र क्याम्पसमा पढाइ

समाजमा इन्जिनियरिङ पढ्नेहरूको प्रतिष्ठा अहिले पनि कायम छ । 'के बन्ने ?' उत्तर हुन्थ्यो कि इन्जिनियर कि डाक्टर । यहाँ डाक्टर होइन इन्जिनियरिङ पढाइको चर्चा हुँदै छ, त्यसमा पनि पछिल्ला दिनमा आकर्षण बनेको कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङको ।

कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङको पढाइ सुरुआत बाह्र वर्षअघि काठमाडौं विश्वविद्यालयले गरेको हो । त्यसको आठ वर्षपछि सुरु भएको थियो त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालयको पुल्चोक इन्जियनिरङ क्याम्पसमा । बढ्दो प्राविधिक जनशक्तिको माग पछ्याउँदै पूर्वाञ्चल र पोखरा विश्वविद्यालयले पनि यसको पढाइ सुरु गरे । अहिले नेपालका १५ वटा क्याम्पसमा कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियर पढाइ हुन्छ । त्रिविको पुल्चोक इन्जिनियरिङबाहेक सम्बन्धन प्राप्त छवटा निजी क्याम्पसमा कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङ पढ्न पाइन्छ । पुल्चोकमा छात्रवृत्ति र शुल्क तिरेर पढ्न सक्छन् । क्याम्पसहरूको शुल्क सबैमा एकनास छैन । धुलिखेलस्थित काठमाडौं विश्वविद्यालय -केयू) को केन्द्रीय क्याम्पसमा मात्र

कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङको पढाइ हुन्छ । केयूले विद्यार्थीलाई ऋण छात्रवृत्ति दिने गरेको छ । पूर्वाञ्चल र पोखरा विश्वविद्यालयबाट सम्बन्धन प्राप्त क्याम्पसहरूले पनि केही संख्यामा छात्रवृत्ति दिँदै आएका छन् । अधिकांश क्याम्पसले प्रत्येक वर्ष ४० देखि ५० जना विद्यार्थी कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङमा भर्ना लिन्छन् । विद्यार्थीको पहिलो रोजाइ पुल्चोक र दोस्रोमा केयू छ ।

कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङ कोर्सका चार वर्षको हुन्छ । क्याम्पसअुनसार २ देखि चार लाख रुपैयाँसम्म लाग्छ, क्याम्पसअनुसार । तुलनात्मक रूपमा केयू अरूभन्दा महँगो छ । केयूमा एक सेमेस्टरमा दुईपटक गरी झन्डै ४० हजार रुपैयाँ लाग्छ । छ महिनाको एक सेमेस्टर हुन्छ ।

विज्ञान संकायमा गणित विषय लिएर प्रवीणता प्रमाणपत्र तह वा सो सरह कम्तीमा ५० प्रतिशत अंक हासिल विद्यार्थीको रोजाइ कम्प्युटर इन्जिनियरिङ बन्छ । त्यसमध्ये पनि फिजिक्स, केमेस्ट्री र गणितमा पनि ५० प्रतिशत हुनुपर्छ । गणित पढेकालाई बढी सजिलो हुने भएकाले इन्जिनियरिङ काउन्सिलले यस्तो व्यवस्था गरेको हो । इन्जिनियरिङ क्याम्पसहरूमा सेमेस्टर प्रणालीको परीक्षा सञ्चालन हुने गरेको छ । धेरै कलेजले एक सेमेस्टरमा तीनपटक आन्तरिक परीक्षा लिन्छन् । अन्तिम परीक्षा विश्वविद्यालयले लिन्छ । सैद्धान्तिकभन्दा पनि प्रयोगात्मक परीक्षा बढी हुने गर्छ । हरेक सेमेस्टरमा विद्यार्थीले कम्तीमा एउटा प्रोजेक्ट वर्क गर्नैपर्छ । केही क्याम्पसले स्नातकोतर तहको पढाइ सञ्चालन गरे पनि विद्यार्थी स्नातकपछि विदेश ताक्ने गरेका छन् ।



SOURCE : KANTIPUR NEWS
Posted on: 2009-04-16

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ramro cha babal cha scope .sathi ho ramrari padnu la .

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Ramro chha ma pani computer engineering padhnu paryo

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Getti ready to read computer engineering...

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