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1 manpower planning and resourcing on 3rd October 2010, 3:53 pm

write a note on internal sourcing

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2 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 3rd October 2010, 11:59 pm


Internal Sourcing is an IT Service Provider which is part of the same Organization as their Customer. An IT Service Provider may have both Internal Customers and External Customers. Internal sourcing carries a number of implications for the employer. Internal sourcing can significantly reduce the costs of recruitment. Both the search process and the collection of information about potential recruits are more expensive for external applicants. The employer can more easily gain reliable information about internal candidates, and intenal sourcing can help to build a socially cohesive workforce, tightly integrated by a network of extraneous social ties. The internal sourcing of senior positions provides the employer with a powerful motivator to add to the other incentives for staff.

The disadvantage of internal sourcing for the employer is that, by closing access to outsiders, the organization greatly reduces the potential field of applicants. Internal sourcing provides no extensive information on the talent available in the labour market. Closing access to outsiders may actually decrease an employer's control of an organization. It may exclude talent and new ideas, and a socially integrated workforce may mobilise powerful community resources to resist managerial challenges to the status quo. Internal sourcing may increase management's dependence on existing staff.

3 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 4th October 2010, 12:05 am


You can get more about internal sourcing here ...

4 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 4th October 2010, 12:09 am

Download Internal Sourcing book
Above is the nice book about internal sourcing ...

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5 manpower planning and resourcing on 4th October 2010, 1:44 pm


thanks pl z send me the answers of the question below,

1) discuss talent engagement model.
2)explain career planning process.
3) write a detailed note on retirement.

6 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 4th October 2010, 6:55 pm


Talent Engagement is a concept that holds that it is the degree to which
a talented talent is emotionally bonded to his organization and passionate
about his work that really matters.Talent engagement is the level of
commitment and involvement a person has towards his organization
and its values. An engaged talent is aware of business context, and
works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the
benefit of the organization. Talent engagement is a critical ingredient
of individual and organizational success. Engagement is strongly influenced
by leadership quality, as well as by job and organization features. This
conceptual research is designed to determine if the potential for talents
to be engaged in work can be predicted at the time of their initial
application for work. These studies also provide additional evidence
about the impact of talent engagement on important business outcomes.

Talent Engagement Model

One of the greatest challenges to engaging prospective talent is not
just the just the sheer volume of prospects, but also honoring the
unique gifts and abilities of each individual. To improve the candidate
experience, you must treat your worst prospect as your best friend.
We must do this because the Microsoft brand is perceived is not what
we say it is, but what our respective target audiences say it is. While
we can influence our brand (discussed in greater detail in the final
article of this series) we do not control it—our audience does.

Back to the talent engagement! In a recent article, I discussed
our “talent engagement model” (see figure 3) in greater detail.
The essence of our thinking was to find a way to break the “apply or goodbye”
nature of much of our relationships we forge with prospective talent.
By staying in a transaction model, we miss the opportunity to deepen
the relationship with the prospects that we worked hard to develop.
It is similar to a sales force that develops new prospects as opposed
to making additional sales with their existing customers. We think it
is not an “either|or” proposition, but rather a both|and opportunity.

Figure 3: Talent Engagement Model

Are We Really Reaching The Passive Prospects?

I realize that most recruiters approach passive prospects–but are they
really reaching the potential of the passive market? I think most
often we reach passive prospects that have behaviors that mirror
an active prospect. The true passive audience can only be reached
by mirroring the actual web activities that the passive prospects are
engaging—that is usually related to their profession, additional training, etc.
This outreach can be automated such as a Recruitment Marketing
Platform that aggregates information on the target audience and iteratively
reaches out to that audience with different messages that address their

While we look at the talent supply (see figure 4) in terms of active,
causal, passive and the non job seekers, it is useful explore the
subject a little more deeply. If we looked at the talent supply in the
context of the methods that are used to reach our target audiences
it is easy to see the challenges of working with a job search cycle
that is nuanced. The Recruiting Roundtable illustrates this point with
the cleaver labels. This graphic also points out another important
point—much of the sourcing of passive prospects is aimed at the very
difficult to recruit prospects. To reach this audience, it takes the
best research and highly impactful headhunting tactics. While
effective, it is difficult to leverage this approach to any scale that
makes economic sense (particularly in a high volume, high bar
type environment). In short, it takes more than a simple human
touch—it takes a “high touch” to engage these prospects. A
conclusion arrived at is that we tend to work at both ends of the
spectrum—to engage the very easy to source and the very difficult
to source. And, I believe, we tend to miss a casual and passive
audience that falls in the “easy to source” and “difficult to source”


Figure 4: Job Search Cycle

Another layer to the discussion is “touch”—technology and human.
In my previous article, I made the case that SEO was the “technology touch”
in our discussion. And indeed, a technology outreach could capture some
of the “causal” audience that was demonstrating web behaviors that
mirrored an active job seeker. This part of the audience was described
as “SEO Gettables. “ But, we still have that opportunity in the middle.
We estimate that 30-40% of the available causal and passive audience
is not reached with normal sourcing efforts.

It is the Talent Engagement Model that facilitates a human touch.
Just as a high touch is key sourcing and recruiting executives and
key contributors, we leverage technology and a human touch to
engage a more skeptical and the less active prospects.

Figure 5: Reaching Target Audience

Our experience with community has convinced us that we can scale a
human touch using social networking sites. We think about building
relationships with prospects as Guanxi—capturing the spirit of the well-know
Chinese core value. Our goal is to place a significant premium on the
relationship that we have with causal and passive prospects (something
that is lacking in our world of transactions).

We created community on the existing communities (LinkedIn, Twitter,
& Facebook) and used the respective platforms to engage the appropriate
segments of their membership. Research indicates that people are flocking
to social networking sites to meet people, entertain themselves, learn something
new or to influence others (Complete, Inc survey). Forrester’s Technographics
research indicated the majority of adults in our society (especially the best
educated, highest paid professions as well as the new entrants to the job market)
have joined social networking sites. So when you consider that Facebook (in
the near future) will have as many members as the population of the USA; that
LinkedIn has over 41 million members representing many of the professions
recruiters seek; and Twitter with its explosive growth, has a high quality (“early adopters” and ”persuaders”) membership that is also attractive as a target audience.

Figure 6:Community of Communities

Joining Existing Communities

While we have created talent communities (Jobster & Job2Web), we
strategically decided to create community where communities already
exist. . One way to think about forming community in existing communities
is that we are organizing an existing community in a way that could enhance
the functioning of that community as long as it aligns with the interests of its

An important “ah-ha” of the last two years is that only about 10% of a target
audience will join a new community (those numbers held true in multiple
situations). We quickly understood that a community of communities
would be the best approach. The Recruiting Marketing platform facilitates
the distribution of information to the respective communities.
The graphic below illustrates the distributive nature of our approach.

Technology Challenges

Matching a process that will work for Microsoft with a vendor solution is
quite challenging. Add the dimension of allowing for community and
conversation and we have just doubled or tripled the challenge. Most
technology solutions that we looked at did not allow for web 2.0
community. While they are great at processing a transaction, the
available solutions are not designed for how candidates want to
interact with potential employees. In general terms, most of the
solutions we reviewed were a web 1.0 solution in a web 2.0 world.

We discovered our vendor partner Jobs2Web about one year ago.
While their solution was the best and most affordable, we made the
selection on their ability to migrate their existing platform to match
the processes we designed. While the rollout has been challenging,
I believe we have made each other better.

As we have worked through the technology challenges with our vendor
partner, Jobs2Web, we are still left with the human challenges of adopting
this model. The SEO piece is easy as it doesn’t require any real change
in recruiter behavior. But the “human touch” aspects of community
building are the remaining challenge.

The Greatest Challenge of the Cutting Edge– “The Year of Guanxi”

Early in this work stream, we realized that it was going to be extremely
difficult and challenging to introduce this approach into a recruiting
process that was basically comprised of a series of transactions.
And, to make things even more interesting, we reward recruiters on
the basis of executing those transactions at a very high level. Talk
about strangers in a foreign land!

So, at the end of our second year, the one last hurdle to greater
success comes down to people. It comes down to our ability to
engage our recruiting colleagues and their hiring managers in the
process. The Recruitment Marketing Platform is in place; all the
moving parts are connected; the activities can be metrixed—but internal
engagement is required to move success to the next level. We will
report on our progress towards meeting this challenge in the future.

Sourcecon News

7 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 4th October 2010, 7:00 pm


Talent Engagement Model: The Outcomes of Engaged Talent

Engaged talents feel inspired, energized and motivated to give their best and hence talent engagement is central to retaining key talent and securing sustained high levels of individual, team and organizational performance. But the way organizations lead, organize and manage talents frequently results in disengaged, frustrated and demotivated employees whose potential is underutilized and whose performance is sub optimal. Too often the organization adopts a rigid, mechanistic approach to people and organizations, particularly in times of uncertainty and change. Therefore a Talent Engagement Model is suggested as shown in fig. 4 for the organizations, who really want to engage their talents and want to leverage their skills to accomplish both the organizational and individual goals.The first and the most critical aspect are the, "engagement drivers". These are the levers that organizations can use to build a more engaging work environment.

Organizations must hire employees who fit the job requirements, develop leaders with the right skills, and provide support through strong systems and strategies of engagement and convert them into actually engaged talents. Employees expect to be valued and involved, good quality line management, two way communications, career development, clear company values and image and atlast they want efficient and effective use of their skills and talents which help them to convert into an engaged talent Together, working on drivers lead to the formation of an engaging work environment. Once created, the engaging work environment has a positive impact on employee behaviors and attitudes. In particular, an engaging environment builds the feeling of psychological ownership in the minds of talents by meeting their personal and practical needs, thus encouraging them to put redundant efforts for maximum performance and stay with the organization. In addition, an engaging work environment taps into talents' motivation to try harder and put forth the extra effort that differentiates organizations from their competitors. Finally, when organizations have engaged talents, the long-term benefits appear in the bottom line. Organizations have more satisfied and loyal customers, increased profits, better-quality products or services, and greater growth potential. Organizations drive engagement by proactively leveraging three sources of influence for change: employees, leaders, and organizational systems and strategies. These three sources work in unison to build an engaging work environment. Although engagement has multiple drivers, the ultimate ownership of engagement rests within the individual employee. Organizations hoping to drive engagement must tap into employees' passion, commitment, and feeling of ownership with the organization. This is accomplished by implementing the critical engagement drivers as mentioned in the previous section.The engagement drivers initiate more and more engaged talents and tries to develop an emotional connection between the talent and the organization, the first phase of "Cognitive Think". The second important component of the model is generation of the possessive feeling among talents regarding their organization known as "Psychological Ownership", which leads to the positive attitude of "Organizational Commitment" and the positive behavior of "Job Satisfaction" among employees which is the second phase of "Affective Feel".

The outcome of the engaged talent can be seen in the "Behavioral Act", the last phase of talents intention to stay and redundant efforts which leads to Talent Retention and Increased Performance respectively.

The most appropriate work environment of engagement would lead to a heightened sense of employee motivation, which, in turn, would lead to enhanced or discretionary effort. Enhanced effort is not just putting in the extra time; it also refers to getting things done in the right manner. Talent engagement represents the extent to which the workforce identifies with the company, is committed to it and provides discretionary effort so that it can be successful. Engagement is a key leading indicator for high performance workplaces, improved employee productivity and minimized turnover.

8 management and organizational development on 4th October 2010, 10:03 pm


please send me these answers .

write a note on human process intervention
write a note on diagnosing organizations.
discuss the value as applied in organizational context.

9 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 4th October 2010, 10:35 pm

please send me these answers .

write a note on human process intervention
write a note on diagnosing organizations.
discuss the value as applied in organizational context.
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10 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 4th October 2010, 11:09 pm


a note on human process intervention

To understand the rationale for human process interventions
To review individual level human process interventions
To examine the effectiveness for human process interventions in producing change

T-Group Objectives
Increased understanding of your own behavior and how it effects others.
Increased understanding and sensitivity to other’s behavior
Increased understanding of group processes
Increased diagnostic skills
Increased ability to transfer learning into action

Small groups of trainees
Off-site training for 3-4 days
Activities promote greater understanding of self and others
Initially no goals or agenda
Intention is to call attention to group process and interpersonal behaviors

Utility of T-Groups
When conducted with a highly trained professional members show increased openness and flexibility
When conducted with an unskilled trainer, harm can follow
Structured T-groups have more impact on organizational effectiveness than non-structured ones.

Conflict & Third Party Intervention
Conflict is a process that occurs when a person or group believes that others have or will take action that is at odds with their own goals and interests.
Costs of conflict: Disruption of productivity, Negative emotions and stress, Stereotyping, Faulty decision making
Benefits of conflict: Discussion of problems, Basis for change, Increase in motivation and loyalty


11 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 4th October 2010, 11:12 pm


Human process intervention

Human process intervention focuses on the human participants and the organiza­
tion processes (e.g. communication, problem solving, decision making) through
which they accomplish their own and the organization's goals. This orientation to
OD is rooted in the academic ields of psychology, social psychology, and an­
thropology and in the applied disciplines of group dynamics and the human rela­
tions movement. Human process-orientation change agents tend to value human
fulillment highly and to expect improved organizational performance to follow on
improved human functioning and processes (152). These two don't necessarily go
hand in hand, even though it may be more comfortable to assume this.

Process-oriented consultants typically have been sensitive to the nature of the
consultant role (145, 157). A good deal of thought has been given to some of the
dilemmas experienced by consultants (11, 15), the problems of developing a valid
organizational diagnosis (15), and the risks of alternative interventions (94).
Although practitioners have developed a number of alternative interventions
concerned with human processes in organizations (c. Beckhard 20, Fordyce & Wei!
73, Burke & Honstein 42, French & Bell 75), most research eforts focus on three
general areas of process-oriented intervention: survey feedback, group development,
and intergroup development.
These three intervention strategies are founded on some common assumptions:
sharing information can be valuable, particularly when it hitherto has remained
unshared but has inluenced organizational processes (like some covert feelings);
confronting and working through diferences among people who must work together
can enhance collaboration; participation in decision making can lead to increased
commitment. Survey feedback involves organizational groups in discussing diagnos­
tic data and planning action steps. Group development activities emphasize improv­
ing group abilities to accomplish their tasks. Intergroup development interventions
press for improved management of the interfaces between groups. These three forms
of intervention are at least potentially compatible, and oten are used in sequence,
beginning with survey feedback and moving to group and intergroup development

Survey Feedback
Survey feedback is a process in which data is systematically collected (usually by
questionnaires) from members of an organization, analyzed in summary fashion,
and fed back selectively to organization members. To varying degrees, outside staf
and organization members collaboratively design the questions to be asked, jointly
analyze and interpret the data, and feed back in meetings to organization units from
which the data was collected for purposes of diagnosis and potential change. The
intervention has developed from traditional attitude surveys which were adminis­
tered to employees and fed back to management; in recent years indings have been
presented to employee respondents as well, partly to gain their cooperation in future
studies. Such feedback has now taken on clear organizational development purposes
as well (36, 130), on the assumption that discrepancies between organizational ideals
and actual responses to the survey will generate motivation for change (136).
Early participation of organization members in the design and collection of data
is likely to increase the relevance of the feedback (123, 130, 132). Organization
members may be asked to develop questions for the survey, or they may be inter­
viewed to determine what issues are relevant (130). Early involvement in one study
increased awareness of interpersonal problems between supervisors and subordi­
nates (7).
The part played by organizational superiors in the feedback meetings is critical.
Baumgartel (17) found that perception of supervisory behavior changed as a conse­
quence of increased information flow and problem confrontation between hierar­
chical levels after feedback. Chase (49) reports that the feedback process tended to
equalize power even in a highly threatening environment, and Klein, Kraut &
Wolfson (108) report that USe of line managers rather than personnel representatives
to feed back data resulted in more satisfaction and greater perceived utilization of
the data. Participation of superiors in discussion of the feedback may facilitate
efective use of the information. On the other hand, a resistant or antagonistic
superior can undermine the process; Alderfer & Ferris (7) suggest that managers
meet in peer groups to prepare for feedback of potentially threatening results before
meeting with their subordinates in family groups.
Extenal consultants can play an important role in the survey feedback process;
they may design instruments, analyze, present and interpret the data, plan for action
steps, and analyze the process of the feedback meetings (cf. Miles et al 130). Alderfer
& Ferriss (7) found that participants reacted more favorably to feedback by outsider­
insider consultant teams than to insiders alone, and Chase (49) reports better
problem-solving and meeting outputs with an outside consultant present.
Processes which occur during the feedback meetings also appear to inluence the
outcomes of those meetings. In the Detroit Edison studies, groups which had more
intensive feedback sessions (aided by a consultant) showed more positive attitude
change than groups with less intensive sessions (17). Brown (38) found evidence that
participants were more receptive to feedback after the meetings, and Klein, Kraut
& Wolfson (108) found that face-to-face feedback meetings were more efective than
written reports. Participation in feedback meetings can efect the group's percep­
tions of problems (49), its expectations of improvement (7), and the quality of its
interaction (130).
It seems clear that survey feedback meetings can lead to attitudinal changes by
participants. Miles et al (130) report improved satisfaction with decisions (even
though they were not implemented); Mann (123) found improvement in attitudes
toward work, supervisors, progress, and group ability to get the job done; Bowers
(35) reports improvement in organizational climate, manageial task and interper­
sonal leadership, and satisfaction; Brown (38) found increased participant involve­
ment in the organization.
But the longer term changes in individual behavior or organizational performance
appear to be contingent on more than just survey feedback. Despite highly successful
meetings and increased satisfaction, Miles et al (130) found that few action steps or
structural changes emerged from the meeting and so little change occurred. Brown
(38) notes that the higher involvement did not persist without follow-up, and
Frohman (83) found that more change occurred with consultant follow-up than
without it.
The research literature suggests that the efectiveness of survey feedback can be
increased by collaborative involvement of the participants, participation of unit
management, facilitation by an outside consultant, and speciic decisions about
follow-up and action steps. There is evidence that survey feedback can be an efective
"bridge" between diagnostic activities (e.g. interviewing or questionnaire adminis­
tration) and active intervention, since its primary efects seem to e on attitudes and
perceptions of the situation. But there is little evidence that survey feedback alone
leads to changes in individual behavior or organizational performance.

12 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 5th October 2010, 2:15 am

plz send me answer of this question.

1) discuss values as applied in organizational context. and
2) write a note on diagnosing organization.

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13 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 5th October 2010, 9:35 am


You can refer following book for noting in diagnosing organization

Click Here: Google Book

Click Here : Organizational Diagnosis

14 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 5th October 2010, 9:48 am

values as applied in organizational context

Here is a quick summary of the way in which values affect a number of important behavioral processes

Motivation. When thinking about motivation as a behavioral choice process, we most often turn to the Expectancy Theory of motivation. One of the three components of this modle is the the valance, or value, of the expected outcomes of a behavioral choice. An individual's value structure has very strong influence on the valance attached to various outcomes.

Decision Making. The decision making process is comprised of three components; Criteria, alternatives, and cause and effect beliefs (theories). The value structure of individuals influences the weight or importance of various criteria used to make decisions.

Conflict. Conflict between individuals and groups is a function of either disagreement about theories or interests. The strength of or importance of a party's interests are a function of value structure.

. Values, both private and public, play a central role in determining what behaviors and choices are viewed as ethical or unethical by members of a culture.

Socialization. One of the roles of a socialization process in a group or organizations is to communicate its public values to new members. When the socialization process is most effective, the publicly stated values of the group or organization become internalized as private values of the individual.

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15 management and organisational development on 5th October 2010, 2:37 pm


thks a lot for the answers .plz answer to this ques.

write a note on constructive feedback.

16 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 5th October 2010, 3:17 pm


Feedback is an essential element for everyone in an organization's workforce. Giving feedback is a task you perform again and again as a manager or supervisor, letting people know where they are and where to go next in terms of expectations and goals - yours, their own, and the organizations. Feedback is a useful tool for indicating when things are going in the right direction or for redirecting problem performance. Your objective in giving feedback is to provide guidance by supplying information in a useful manner, either to support effective behavior, or to guide someone back on track toward successful performance. Some situations which require giving constructive feedback include:
• Ongoing performance discussions
• Providing specific performance pointers
• Following up on coaching discussions
• Giving corrective guidance
• Letting someone know the consequences of their behavior
Some clues that constructive feedback is needed are when:
• Someone asks for your opinion about how they are doing
• Unresolved problems persist
• Errors occur again and again
• An employee's performance doesn't meet expectations
• A peer's work habits disturb you


Part of being an effective manager or supervisor is knowing what feedback to give. The trick is learning how to give it constructively so that it has some value. constructive feedback is a tool that is used to build things up, not break things down. It lets the other person know that you are on their side.
1. If you can't think of a constructive purpose for giving feedback, don't give it at all.

2. Focus on description rather than judgement.
Describing behavior is a way of reporting what has occurred, while judging behavior is an
evaluation of what has occurred in terms of "right or wrong", or "good or bad". By avoiding
evaluative language, you reduce the need for the individual to respond defensively.
For example: "You demonstrate a high degree of confidence when you answer customer
questions about registration procedures, "rather than, "Your communication skills are good."

3. Focus on observation rather than inference.
Observations refer to what you can see or hear about an individual's behavior, while inferences refer to the assumptions and interpretations you make from what you see or hear. Focus on what the person did and your reaction.
For example: "When you gave that student the Financial Aid form, you tossed it across the
counter," rather than describe what you assume to be the person's motivation, "I suppose you give all forms out that way!"

4. Focus on behavior rather than the person
Refer to what an individual does rather than on what you imagine she or he is. To focus on
behavior, use adverbs, which describe action, rather than adjectives, which describe qualities.
For example: "You talked considerably during the staff meeting, which prevented me from getting to some of the main points," rather than "You talk too much."

5. Provide a balance of positive and negative feedback
If you consistently give only positive or negative feedback, people will distrust the feedback and it will become useless.

6. Be aware of feedback overload.
Select two or three important points you want to make and offer feedback about those points. If you overload an individual with feedback, she or he may become confused about what needs to be improved or changed.
For example: "The number of applicants and the time it takes you to enter them are both within the expected ranges. The number of keying errors you are currently making is higher than expected." Giving feedback constructively benefits everyone. You, as the manager or supervisor, use the on-going exchange of information as a way of getting to know your people and providing them with valuable guidance in their work. The employee, manager, supervisor, or peer receives data that makes that makes her or his job go easier. The organization gains in improved productivity of its workforce.

Step 1: State the constructive purpose of your feedback.
State your purpose briefly by indicating what you'd like to cover and why it's important. If you are initiating feedback, this focus keeps the other person from having to guess what you want to talk about. If the other person has requested feedback, a focusing statement will make sure that you direct your feedback toward what the person needs.
For example: "I have a concern about." "I feel I need to let you know."
"I want to discuss." "I have some thoughts about."

Step 2: Describe specifically what you have observed.
Have a certain event or action in mind and be able to say when and where it happened, who was involved, and what the results were. Stick to what you personally observed and don't try to speak for others. Avoid talking vaguely about what the person "always" or "usually" does.
For example: "Yesterday afternoon, when you were speaking with Mrs. Sanchez, I noticed that you kept raising your voice."

Step 3: Describe your reactions.
Explain the consequences of the other person's behavior and how you feel about it. Give
examples of how you and others are affected. When you describe your reactions or the
consequences of the observed behaviors, the other person can better appreciate the impact their actions are having on others and on the organization or team as a whole.

For example: "The staff member looked embarrassed and I felt uncomfortable about seeing the episode." "Shouting at our students is not acceptable behavior in this department."

Step 4: Give the other person an opportunity to respond.
Remain silent and meet the other persons eye, indicating that you are waiting for answer. If the person hesitates to respond, ask an open ended question.
For example: "What do you think?"
"What is your view of this situation?"
"What are your reaction to this?"
"Tell me, what are your thoughts?"

Step 5: Offer specific suggestions.
Whenever possible make your suggestions helpful by including practical, feasible examples.
Offering suggestions shows that you have thought past your evaluations and moved to how toimprove the situation. Even if people are working up to expected standards, they often benefit from ideas that could help them to perform better.
If your feedback was offered supportively or neutrally, in the "for your information" mode, or depending on the situation's circumstances, suggestions may not be appropriate. Use your common sense and offer an idea if you think the other person will find it useful. Don't drum up a suggestion for improvement just for the sake of it.
For example:
"Jennifer, I sometimes write myself notes or put up signs to remind myself to dosomething."
"Jill, rather than telling Ed that you're not interested in all the details, you might try
asking him specific questions about the information you are most interested in."

Step 6: Summarize and express your support
Review the major points you discussed. Summarize the Action items, not the negative points of the other person's behavior. If you have given neutral feedback, emphasize the main points you have wanted to convey. For corrective feedback, stress the main things you've discussed that the person could do differently. End on a positive note by communicating confidence in the person's ability to improve the situation.
For example: "As I said, the way the group has figured out how to cover phone calls has really lessened the number of phone messages to be returned. You've really followed through on a tough problem. Please keep taking the initiate on problems like that.
By summarizing, you can avoid misunderstandings and check to make sure that your
communication is clean. This summary is an opportunity to show your support for the other
person—a way to conclude even an negative feedback situation on a positive note.
For example: "At least we understand each other better since we've talked. I'll do what I can to make sure your priorities are factored into the schedule, and I'll expect you to
come straight to me if the schedule is a problem.

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17 employee relations management on 6th October 2010, 2:06 am


plz plz send me this answers of this question below.

1) Explain how the strategy of an organisation influences its employee policies?
2)Define Employee Engagement. What are the different factors that influence employee engagement?
3)Write notes on the following decision making model:
a.Incremental Model
b.Garbage Can Model
4)Explain the role of Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in people management

18 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 6th October 2010, 1:48 pm


You can refer following book for the solution of the strategy of an organisation influences its employee policies (qn no 1)

Employee relations By John Gennard, Graham Judge

Qn 2) Define Employee Engagement. What are the different factors that influence employee engagement?

Employee engagement is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has
towards their organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of business
context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit
of the organization. It is a positive attitude held by the employees towards the
organization and its values. The paper focuses on how employee engagement is an
antecedent of job involvement and what should company do to make the employees
engaged. Engagement at work was conceptualized by Kahn, (1990) as the ‘harnessing of
organizational members’ selves to their work roles. In engagement, people employ and
express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances.
The second related construct to engagement in organizational behavior is the notion of
flow advanced by Csikszentmihalyi (1975, 1990). Csikzentmihalyi (1975) defines flow as
the ‘holistic sensation’ that, people feel when they act with total involvement. Flow is
the state in which there is little distinction between the self and environment. When
individuals are in Flow State little conscious control is necessary for their actions.

Employee engagement is the thus the level of commitment and involvement an employee
has towards their organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of business
context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit
of the organization. The organization must work to develop and nurture engagement,
which requires a two-way relationship between employer and employee.’ Thus Employee
engagement is a barometer that determines the association of a person with the

The different factors that influence employee engagement
Studies have shown that there are some critical factors which influence to Employee
engagement. Some of them identified are

Career Development- Opportunities for Personal Development

Organizations with high levels of engagement provide employees with opportunities to
develop their abilities, learn new skills, acquire new knowledge and realise their
potential. When companies plan for the career paths of their employees and invest in
them in this way their people invest in them.

Career Development – Effective Management of Talent
Career development influences engagement for employees and retaining the most
talented employees and providing opportunities for personal development.

Leadership- Clarity of Company Values
Employees need to feel that the core values for which their companies stand are
unambiguous and clear.

Leadership – Respectful Treatment of Employees
Successful organizations show respect for each employee’s qualities and contribution –
regardless of their job level.

Leadership – Company’s Standards of Ethical Behaviour
A company’s ethical stand ards also lead to engagement of an individual

Employees want to be involved in decisions that affect their work. The leaders of high-
engagement workplaces create a trustful and challenging environment, in which
employees are encouraged to dissent from the prevailing orthodoxy and to input and
innovate to move the organization forward.

How much employees are prepared to endorse the products and services which their
company provides its customers depends largely on their perceptions of the quality of
those goods and services. High levels of employee engagement are inextricably linked
with high levels of customer engagement.

Other factors

Equal Opportunities and Fair Treatment

The employee engagement levels would be high if their bosses (superiors) provide equal
opportunities for growth and advancement to all the employees

Performance appraisal
Fair evaluation of an employee’s performance is an important criterion for determining
the level of employee engagement. The company which follows an appropriate
performance appraisal technique (which is transparent and not biased) will have high
levels of employee engagement.

Pay and Benefits
The company should have a proper pay system so that the employees are motivated to
work in the organization. In order to boost his engagement levels the employees should
also be provided with certain benefits and compensations.

Health and Safety
Research indicates that the engagement levels are low if the employee does not feel
secure while working. Therefore every organization should adopt appropriate methods
and systems for the health and safety of their employees.

Job Satisfaction
Only a satisfied employee can become an engaged employee. Therefore it is very
essential for an organization to see to it that the job given to the employee matches his
career goals which will make him enjoy his work and he would ultimately be satisfied
with his job.

The company should follow the open door policy. There should be both upward and
downward communication with the use of appropriate communication channels in the
organization. If the employee is given a say in the decision making and has the right to be
heard by his boss than the engagement levels are likely to be high.

Family Friendliness
A person’s family life influences his wok life. When an employee realizes that the
organization is considering his family’s benefits also, he will have an emotional
attachment with the organization which leads to engagement

If the entire organization works together by helping each other i.e. all the employees as
well as the supervisors co-ordinate well than the employees will be engaged.

QN4) Use following book to answer about the role of Human Resource Information System (HRIS) in people management

HRIS BY Asafo-Adjei Agyenim Boateng

19 employee relations management on 6th October 2010, 2:35 pm


plz send me these answers.

3)Write notes on the following decision making model:
a.Incremental Model
b.Garbage Can Model

20 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 6th October 2010, 4:29 pm


Incremental Model:
Charles Lindblom also rejected the rational-comprehensive model and presented an alternative “incremental” approach to decision making. In his now famous paper, “The Science of Muddling Through,” Lindblom saw that most policy decisions are made in small analytical increments in response to events and circumstances where the decision-maker‟s analysis is focused on familiar, better-known experiences. This significantly reduces the number of decision factors and alternatives available. “Disjointed” incrementalism, argued Lindblom, is really how problems are solved over time, in piecemeal, rather than in comprehensive, fashion. Relatively small or incremental policy changes tend to be the norm because of the need for consensus among the interested parties and negotiation efforts are directed to what can be achieved. Unfortunately, the attainment of short-term solutions may be at the expense of more important and far-reaching goals. Incrementalism is not inherently undesirable since small changes from the resulting decisions are more subject to correction if they produce unfavorable outcomes. The theory of incrementalism explains how the process of decision making is slowed down, and organizations avoid making big mistakes that could be costly militarily, financially and politically. However, focus on smaller problems and failure to confront the larger issues may result in “kicking the can down the road” to deal with later when the situation may be more complex and dangerous. Furthermore, the incremental model may slowly move the organization away from the original espoused goals. If the organization is faced with an environment that has changed
significantly, the incremental approach is unlikely to result in the necessary amount of
change to guarantee organizational survival.

The incremental model has the following characteristics:

1. Only a few options and means are considered

2. Decisions are the product of negotiated settlements

3. Changes are made gradually over time

4. Decisions tend to be made reactively

5. Political considerations are important in determining outcomes

The incremental approach to decision making is reflective of the Program, Planning,
Budgeting, and Executing (PPBE) process used in the military. The greatest
predetermining factor for any year‟s budget is the prior year‟s budget. Anything more
than incremental change is unlikely when it comes to the budgetary process. An item
might be submitted and approved in the Program Objective Memorandum (POM), and
might be incrementally added to by using the Supplemental Budget to gain more
resources for it. Alternatively, a program might be incrementally developed in the POM
over several years. Several of our DA weapons systems programs (e.g., Bradley
Fighting Vehicle System, the Remotely Piloted Vehicle, and the Future Combat System
could be viewed using the incremental model. In the case of the Bradley Fighting
Vehicle, the original espoused goals were incrementally contradicted over time.14
Lindblom conceded shortcomings of the incremental approach including:
fragmentation of decisions, arbitrary exclusions, and decision-makers may overlook
excellent policies not suggested by the chain of successive policy steps. Yehezkel Dror
offered other critiques of incrementalism: It may not suffice to meet real growing
demands; it may miss the mark entirely, it lacks responsiveness to large-scale needs, it
makes acceptable the forces that tend toward inertia, it maintains the status quo, and, it
lacks innovativeness.15 The result may be a failure to confront major issues by “kicking
the can down the road” to deal with later. The danger is that the situation may become
more complex and tenuous.

b.Garbage Can Model

March, Cohen, and Olsen (1972)23 developed the notion that
decisions are made based on chance and unsystematic interactions of actors and
opportunities, and the current availability of resources.24 This model, based on the
theory of organizational anarchy, posits the notion that organizations have inconsistent
and ill-defined preferences, and operate on the basis of trial and error; that stakeholders
only partially understand the processes; and that decision-makers often act whimsically
and impulsively. Within this framework, March and his colleagues theorized that
organizations produce many solutions for which there are no immediate problems, and
are these dumped in a holding can—the garbage can. Problems needing solutions will
arise in the future and a search through the garbage might yield a solution. In this
sense, the garbage can is really an “opportunity” can. The mix of opportunities lying in
waiting are based on the organization‟s current and past environmental realities. The
garbage can‟s relevance depends on how quickly these cans get filled and also how
quickly the garbage cans are discarded. While the garbage can presents opportunities
for addressing the important problems, it has the threat of unsystematic rationality.
Vice Admiral Joseph Metcalf used the garbage can model to explain decision making
of the 1983 Grenada Rescue Operation.25 Adm Metcalf was the commander of the joint
U.S. forces, CJTF 120, for Operation Urgent Fury, who in his reflections commented, “it
is clear that many decisions just „happened‟.”26 While the goals of the invasion were
clearly established and communicated, the command and staff structure was cobbled
together with available forces from all services (an existing solution used to solve the
emergent problem). The paper organization of CJTF 120 was fleshed out by re-
directing personnel—a notable case was taking the Army liaison officer, Maj. Gen. Norm
Schwarzkopf, and naming him the deputy commander. While the operation was a
success, several problems with intelligence, communications, and coordination
(resulting in fratricide) among the joint forces led to congressional investigations. The
review of Operation Urgent Fury contributed to the enactment of the Goldwater-Nichols
Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 (GNA). GNA established
authorities for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, revised military command
structures, and instituted requirements for joint training. In sum, the non-rationality of
the decision making process led to legislation to provide more structure and control.

21 employee relations management on 6th October 2010, 5:09 pm


pl z send me these answers of the question below plz.

Sanjay is a trade union leader with twenty years of experience in an industrial organisation. One of the laborer’s in the organisation met with an accident while on duty. What will be the different means by which he will ensure that the laborer is well compensated for the work-related injury?

22 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 6th October 2010, 5:39 pm


Use the following books to get your answer for injury compensation to laborers' in Trade Union.

Injury Compensation for Federal Employees

23 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 6th October 2010, 10:43 pm

Pls mail me the answer for the question below:

1. Explain section 138 of negotiable instrument act. What changes it has brought in the business environment? In your option what needs to be done to make section more effective.

2. How will you assess the performance of RBI in the light of global melt down? What proactive measures taken by RBI blunted the impact of melt down on Indian Banking System.

Thank You.

Last edited by Akshatha Kalyanpur on 6th October 2010, 11:22 pm; edited 1 time in total

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24 employee relation management. on 6th October 2010, 10:45 pm


plz send me these answers plzz.

1)Elucidate the importance of employee reward and also explain the various types of employee rewards.

2)Explain what is Employee empowerment? What are the effects of employee empowerment?
3) Describe the disciplinary procedure commonly followed in Organizations.

25 Re: manpower planning and resourcing on 6th October 2010, 11:39 pm


Akshatha Kalyanpur wrote:Pls mail me the answer for the question below:
1. Explain section 138 of negotiable instrument act. What changes it has brought in the business environment? In your option what needs to be done to make section more effective.

section 138 of negotiable instrument act

Click Here for section 138 of NIA

Section 138 of the Negotiable Instruments Act states that the return of a cheque by a banker because the money standing to the credit of the accountholder is insufficient to honour the cheque or that it exceeds the amount arranged to be paid from the account by an agreement made with the bank, is a criminal offence. The drawer shall be deemed to have committed an offence and such offence will be punishable with imprisonment for a term up to two years imprisonment or with a fine twice the amount of the cheque or both.

Provisions of section 138 of the Act are applicable only if –
(a) The cheque in question has been issued in discharge of a liability only. Unless contrary is proved, as per the provisions of section 139, a cheque is presumed to have been received by the holder in discharge of a debt or liability. A cheque given as gift will not fall in this category.

(b) The cheque is presented to the bank for payment within six months or its specific validity period, whichever is earlier.

(c) The payee or holder in due course has given notice demanding payment within thirty days of the receiving information of dishonour which should be for a reason other than insufficiency of funds.

(d) The drawer does not make payment within 15 days of the receipt of the notice. The complaint can be made only by the payee/holder in due course, within one month.

Offences by companies

If the person committing an offence under section 138 is a company, every person who was in charge of the affairs of the company and was responsible for the business of the company at the time offence was committed shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly. (Section 139) However, a person shall not be punishable under section 139 if it is proved that the offence has been committed without his knowledge or consent and that he had taken all due care to prevent commission of the offence.

Action to be taken
If a cheque is dishonored for lack of funds, the drawer can be punished with imprisonment upto one year and/ or withn a fine upto double the amount of the cheque if:

· The cheque has been presented to the bank within a year from the date on which it was drawn or within its validity.

· The payee or holder makes a demand for paymenmt by giving notice in writing to the drawer within thirty days of the receipt of the information.

· The drawer of the cheque fails to make payment within fifteen days of receipt of the notice.

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