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February 2011

Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 4

MB0037 – International Business Management - 3 Credits

Assignment Set- 2 (60 Marks)

Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions.

Q.1 What is WTO? What is GATT? Explain both. [10 marks]

Q.2 What is MNC? Explain the 3 stages of evolution. [10 marks]

Q.3 Mention the differences between currency markets and exchange rate markets in the

context of international business environment. [10 marks]

Q.4 a) Explain the role of privatization in international business. [05 marks]

b) Mention the relevance of these international commercial terms: FCA, EXW, DES,

CIF and DDP [05 marks]

Q.5 Give short notes on Letter of credit and Bill of Lading [10 marks]

Q.6 Discuss the entry methods in international business with relevant examples. [10 marks]


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Q.1 What is WTO? What is GATT? Explain both. [10 marks]

Q.2 What is MNC? Explain the 3 stages of evolution. [10 marks]

Q.3 Mention the differences between currency markets and exchange rate markets in the

context of international business environment. [10 marks]

Q.4 a) Explain the role of privatization in international business. [05 marks]

b) Mention the relevance of these international commercial terms: FCA, EXW, DES,

CIF and DDP [05 marks]

Q.5 Give short notes on Letter of credit and Bill of Lading [10 marks]

Q.6 Discuss the entry methods in international business with relevant examples. [10 marks]


plz post soon sir plz............................

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Q.1 What is WTO? What is GATT? Explain both.
WTO
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.
The WTO provides a forum for negotiating agreements aimed at reducing obstacles to international trade and ensuring a level playing field for all, thus contributing to economic growth and development. The WTO also provides a legal and institutional framework for the implementation and monitoring of these agreements, as well as for settling disputes arising from their interpretation and application. The current body of trade agreements comprising the WTO consists of 16 different multilateral agreements (to which all WTO members are parties) and two different plurilateral agreements (to which only some WTO members are parties).
Over the past 60 years, the WTO, which was established in 1995, and its predecessor organization the GATT have helped to create a strong and prosperous international trading system, thereby contributing to unprecedented global economic growth. The WTO currently has members, of which 117 are developing countries or separate customs territories. WTO activities are supported by a Secretariat of some 700 staff, led by the WTO Director-General. The Secretariat is located in Geneva, Switzerland, and has an annual budget of approximately CHF 200 million ($180 million, €130 million). The three official languages of the WTO are English, French and Spanish.
Decisions in the WTO are generally taken by consensus of the entire membership. The highest institutional body is the Ministerial Conference, which meets roughly every two years. A General Council conducts the organization's business in the intervals between Ministerial Conferences. Both of these bodies comprise all members. Specialised subsidiary bodies (Councils, Committees, Sub-committees), also comprising all members, administer and monitor the implementation by members of the various WTO agreements.
More specifically, the WTO's main activities are:
— negotiating the reduction or elimination of obstacles to trade (import tariffs, other barriers to trade) and agreeing on rules governing the conduct of international trade (e.g. antidumping, subsidies, product standards, etc.)
— administering and monitoring the application of the WTO's agreed rules for trade in goods, trade in services, and trade-related intellectual property rights
— monitoring and reviewing the trade policies of our members, as well as ensuring transparency of regional and bilateral trade agreements
— settling disputes among our members regarding the interpretation and application of the agreements
— building capacity of developing country government officials in international trade matters
— assisting the process of accession of some 30 countries who are not yet members of the organization
— conducting economic research and collecting and disseminating trade data in support of the WTO's other main activities
— explaining to and educating the public about the WTO, its mission and its activities.
The WTO's founding and guiding principles remain the pursuit of open borders, the guarantee of most-favoured-nation principle and non-discriminatory treatment by and among members, and a commitment to transparency in the conduct of its activities. The opening of national markets to international trade, with justifiable exceptions or with adequate flexibilities, will encourage and contribute to sustainable development, raise people's welfare, reduce poverty, and foster peace and stability. At the same time, such market opening must be accompanied by sound domestic and international policies that contribute to economic growth and development according to each member's needs and aspirations.

GATT
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (typically abbreviated GATT) was negotiated during the UN Conference on Trade and Employment and was the outcome of the failure of negotiating governments to create the International Trade Organization (ITO). GATT was signed in 1947 and lasted until 1993, when it was replaced by the World Trade Organization in 1995. The original GATT text (GATT 1947) is still in effect under the WTO framework, subject to the modifications of GATT 1994.[1]
In 1993, the GATT was updated (GATT 1994) to include new obligations upon its signatories. One of the most significant changes was the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The 75 existing GATT members and the European Communities became the founding members of the WTO on 1 January 1995. The other 52 GATT members rejoined the WTO in the following two years (the last being Congo in 1997). Since the founding of the WTO, 21 new non-GATT members have joined and 29 are currently negotiating membership. There are a total of 153 member countries in the WTO.
Of the original GATT members, Syria[4][5] and the SFR Yugoslavia has not rejoined the WTO. Since FR Yugoslavia, (renamed to Serbia and Montenegro and with membership negotiations later split in two), is not recognised as a direct SFRY successor state; therefore, its application is considered a new (non-GATT) one. The General Council of WTO, on 4 May 2010, agreed to establish a working party to examine the request of Syria for WTO membership.[6][7] The contracting parties who founded the WTO ended official agreement of the "GATT 1947" terms on 31 December 1995. Serbia and Montenegro are in the decision stage of the negotiations and are expected to become the newest members of the WTO in 2012 or in near future.
Whereas GATT was a set of rules agreed upon by nations, the WTO is an institutional body. The WTO expanded its scope from traded goods to trade within the service sector and intellectual property rights. Although it was designed to serve multilateral agreements, during several rounds of GATT negotiations (particularly the Tokyo Round) plurilateral agreements created selective trading and caused fragmentation among members. WTO arrangements are generally a multilateral agreement settlement mechanism of GATT.[8]


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Q.2 What is MNC? Explain the 3 stages of evolution.
An MNC is a parent company that
1. engages in foreign production through its affiliates located in several countries,
2. exercises direct control over the policies of its affiliates,
3. implements business strategies in production, marketing, finance and staffing that transcend national boundaries.
In other words, MNCs exhibit no loyalty to the country in which they are incorporated. Multinational companies may pursue policies that are home country – oriented or host country – oriented or world – oriented. Perlmutter uses such terms as ethnocentric, polycentric and geocentric. However, "ethnocentric" is misleading because it focuses on race or ethnicity, especially when the home country itself is populated by many different races, whereas "polycentric" loses its meaning when the MNCs operate only in one or two foreign countries.
Ownership criterion: some argue that ownership is a key criterion. A firm becomes multinational only when the headquarter or parent company is effectively owned by nationals of two or more countries. For example, Shell and Unilever, controlled by British and Dutch interests, are good examples. However, by ownership test, very few multinationals are multinational. The ownership of most MNCs is uni-national. (See videotape concerning the Smith-Corona versus Brothers case) Depending on the case, each is considered an American multinational company in one case, and each is considered a foreign multinational in another case. Thus, ownership does not really matter.
Nationality mix of headquarter managers: An international company is multinational if the managers of the parent company are nationals of several countries. Usually, managers of the headquarters are nationals of the home country. This may be a transitional phenomenon. Very few companies pass this test currently.
Business Strategy: global profit maximization

Three Stages of Evolution

1. Export stage
· initial inquiries Þ firms rely on export agents
· expansion of export sales
· further expansion Þ foreign sales branch or assembly operations (to save transport cost)

2. Foreign Production Stage
There is a limit to foreign sales (tariffs, NTBs)
DFI versus Licensing
Once the firm chooses foreign production as a method of delivering goods to foreign markets, it must decide whether to establish a foreign production subsidiary or license the technology to a foreign firm.
Licensing
Licensing is usually first experience (because it is easy)
e.g.: Kentucky Fried Chicken in the U.K.
· it does not require any capital expenditure
· it is not risky
· payment = a fixed % of sales
Problem: the mother firm cannot exercise any managerial control over the licensee (it is independent)
The licensee may transfer industrial secrets to another independent firm, thereby creating a rival.
Direct Investment
It requires the decision of top management because it is a critical step.
· it is risky (lack of information) (US firms tend to establish subsidiaries in Canada first. Singer Manufacturing Company established its foreign plants in Scotland and Australia in the 1850s)
· plants are established in several countries
· licensing is switched from independent producers to its subsidiaries.
· export continues

3. Multinational Stage
The company becomes a multinational enterprise when it begins to plan, organize and coordinate production, marketing, R&D, financing, and staffing. For each of these operations, the firm must find the best location.


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Q.3 Mention the differences between currency markets and exchange rate markets in the context of international business environment
The exchange rate regimes adopted by countries in today’s international monetary and financial system, and the system itself, are profoundly different from those envisaged at the 1944 meeting at Bretton Woods establishing the IMF and the World Bank. In the Bretton Woods system:
· exchange rates were fixed but adjustable. This system aimed both to avoid the undue volatility thought to characterize floating exchange rates and to prevent competitive depreciations, while permitting enough flexibility to adjust to fundamental disequilibrium under international supervision;
· private capital flows were expected to play only a limited role in financing payments imbalances, and widespread use of controls would prevent instability in such flows;
· temporary official financing of payments imbalances, mainly through the IMF, would smooth the adjustment process and avoid unduly sharp correction of current account imbalances, with their repercussions on trade flows, output, and employment.

In the current market system, exchange rates among the major currencies (principally the U.S. dollar, the euro, and Japanese yen) fluctuate in response to market forces, with short-run volatility and occasional large medium-run swings (Figure 1). Some medium-sized industrial countries also have market – determined floating rate regimes, while others have adopted harder pegs, including some European countries outside the euro area. Developing and transition economies have a wide variety of exchange rate arrangements, with a tendency for many but by no means all countries to move toward increased exchange rate flexibility.


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Q.4 a) Explain the role of privatization in international business.

Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of a business, enterprise, agency or public service from the public sector (the state or government) to the private sector (businesses that operate for a private profit) or to private non-profit organizations. In a broader sense, privatization refers to transfer of any government function to the private sector - including governmental functions like revenue collection and law enforcement.[1]
The term "privatization" also has been used to describe two unrelated transactions. The first is a buyout, by the majority owner, of all shares of a public corporation or holding company's stock, privatizing a publicly traded stock, and often described as private equity. The second is a demutualization of a mutual organization or cooperative to form a joint stock company.

the role of privatization in international business
1)Development would be faster(due to competetion with the other private parties)
2)Innovative solutions (due to again competetion with the other private parties)
3)effective & time bound results
4)cost cuttings
Privatization is the implementation of a decision to sell companies owned by the State to private individuals/ companies.
Benefits of privatization are making the erstwhile public sector commercial enterprise survive in competitive markets through better efficiency, higher productivity, improved product quality and customer service, and reduction of waste and leakages due to State ownership.
There are no limitations of privatization except that hitherto unproductive or less productive labor would have learn afresh the art of servivng through hard work and excellence.


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4/b) Mention the relevance of these international commercial terms: FCA, EXW, DES,CIF and DDP.

FCA {+ the named point of departure}=Free Carrier
The delivery of goods on truck, rail car or container at the specified point (depot) of departure, which is usually the seller’s premises, or a named railroad station or a named cargo terminal or into the custody of the carrier, at seller’s expense. The point (depot) at origin may or may not be a customs clearance centre. Buyer is responsible for the main carriage/freight, cargo insurance and other costs and risks.
The term FCA is also used in the RO/RO (roll on/roll off) services.In the export quotation, indicate the point of departure (loading) after the acronym FCA, for example FCA Hong Kong and FCA Seattle.

EXW {+ the named place}=Ex Works
Ex means from. Works means factory, mill or warehouse, which are the seller’s premises. EXW applies to goods available only at the seller’s premises. Buyer is responsible for loading the goods on truck or container at the seller’s premises, and for the subsequent costs and risks.
In the quotation, indicate the named place (seller’s premises) after the acronym EXW, for example EXW Kobe and EXW San Antonio.The term EXW is commonly used between the manufacturer (seller) and export-trader (buyer), and the export-trader resells on other trade terms to the foreign buyers.

DES {+ the named port of destination}=Delivered Ex Ship
The delivery of goods on board the vessel is at the named port of destination (discharge) at seller’s expense. Buyer assumes the unloading fee, import customs clearance, payment of customs duties and taxes, cargo insurance, and other costs and risks.
In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym DES, for example DES Helsinki and DES Stockholm.

CIF {+ the named port of destination}=Cost, Insurance and Freight
The cargo insurance and delivery of goods is to the named port of destination (discharge) at the seller’s expense. Buyer is responsible for the import customs clearance and other costs and risks.
In the export quotation, indicate the port of destination (discharge) after the acronym CIF, for example CIF Pusan and CIF Singapore.

DDP {+ the named point of destination}=Delivered Duty Paid
The seller is responsible for most of the expenses, which include the cargo insurance, import customs clearance, and payment of customs duties and taxes at the buyer’s end, and the delivery of goods to the final point at destination, which is often the project site or buyer’s premises. The seller may opt not to insure the goods at his/her own risks.
In the export quotation, indicate the point of destination (discharge) after the acronym DDP, for example DDP Bujumbura and DDP Mbabane.


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Q.5 Give short notes on Letter of credit and Bill of Lading

Letter of Credit
A letter of credit is a document issued mostly by a financial institution which usually provides an irrevocable payment undertaking (it can also be revocable, confirmed, unconfirmed, transferable or others e.g. back to back: revolving but is most commonly irrevocable/confirmed) to a beneficiary against complying documents as stated in the credit. Letter of Credit is abbreviated as an LC or L/C, and often is referred to as a documentary credit, abbreviated as DC or D/C, documentary letter of credit, or simply as credit (as in the UCP 500 and UCP 600). Once the beneficiary or a presenting bank acting on its behalf, makes a presentation to the issuing bank or confirming bank, if any, within the expiry date of the LC, comprising documents complying with the terms and conditions of the LC, the applicable UCP and international standard banking practice, the issuing bank or confirming bank, if any, is obliged to honour irrespective of any instructions from the applicant to the contrary. In other words, the obligation to honour (usually payment) is shifted from the applicant to the issuing bank or confirming bank, if any. Non-banks can also issue letters of credit however parties must balance potential risks.Letters of credit accomplish their purpose by substituting the credit of the bank for that of the customer, for the purpose of facilitating trade. There are basically two types: commercial and standby. The commercial letter of credit is the primary payment mechanism for a transaction, whereas the standby letter of credit is a secondary payment mechanism.
Letters of credit are often used in international transactions to ensure that payment will be received. Due to the nature of international dealings including factors such as distance, differing laws in each country and difficulty in knowing each party personally, the use of letters of credit has become a very important aspect of international trade. The bank also acts on behalf of the buyer (holder of letter of credit) by ensuring that the supplier will not be paid until the bank receives a confirmation that the goods have been shipped.

Bill of Lading
A Bill of Lading is a type of document that is used to acknowledge the receipt of a shipment of goods and is an essential document in transporting goods overland to the exporter’s international carrier. A through Bill of Lading involves the use of at least two different modes of transport from road, rail, air and sea. The term derives from the noun "bill", a schedule of costs for services supplied or to be supplied, and from the verb "to lade" which means to load a cargo onto a ship or other form of transport.
In addition to acknowledging the receipt of goods, a Bill of Lading indicates the particular vessel on which the goods have been placed, their intended destination, and the terms for transporting the shipment to its final destination. Inland, ocean, through, and airway bill are the names given to bills of lading.
For example, suppose that a logistics company must transport gasoline from a plant in Texas to a gas station in Arizona via heavy truck. A plant representative and the driver would sign the bill of lading after the gas is loaded onto the truck. Once the gasoline is delivered to the gas station in Arizona, the truck driver must have the clerk at the station sign the document as well.


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Q.6 Discuss the entry methods in international business with relevant examples.

Methods of entry in international business
With rare exceptions, products just don’t emerge in foreign markets overnight – a firm has to build up a market over time. Several strategies, which differ in aggressiveness, risk, and the amount of control that the firm is able to maintain, are available:
· Exporting is a relatively low risk strategy in which few investments are made in the new country. A drawback is that, because the firm makes few if any marketing investments in the new country, market share may be below potential. Further, the firm, by not operating in the country, learns less about the market (What do consumers really want? Which kinds of advertising campaigns are most successful? What are the most effective methods of distribution?) If an importer is willing to do a good job of marketing, this arrangement may represent a "win-win" situation, but it may be more difficult for the firm to enter on its own later if it decides that larger profits can be made within the country.
· Licensing and franchising are also low exposure methods of entry – you allow someone else to use your trademarks and accumulated expertise. Your partner puts up the money and assumes the risk. Problems here involve the fact that you are training a potential competitor and that you have little control over how the business is operated. For example, American fast food restaurants have found that foreign franchisees often fail to maintain American standards of cleanliness. Similarly, a foreign manufacturer may use lower quality ingredients in manufacturing a brand based on premium contents in the home country.
· Contract manufacturing involves having someone else manufacture products while you take on some of the marketing efforts yourself. This saves investment, but again you may be training a competitor.
· Direct entry strategies, where the firm either acquires a firm or builds operations "from scratch" involve the highest exposure, but also the greatest opportunities for profits. The firm gains more knowledge about the local market and maintains greater control, but now has a huge investment. In some countries, the government may expropriate assets without compensation, so direct investment entails an additional risk. A variation involves a joint venture, where a local firm puts up some of the money and knowledge about the local market.


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Thanks for the solutions......

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