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3. List out the various automated systems for transfer of materials intheproduction plant. What do you understand by Line Balancing?Explain withan example.
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About the automated flow lines we can say it is a machine which is linked bya transfer system which moves the parts by using handling machines whichare also automated, we have an automated flow line.Human intervention ma is needed to verify that the operations ate takingplace according to standards. When these can be achieved with the help of automation and the processes are conducted with self regulation, we willhave automated flow lines established.In fixed automation or hard automation, where one component ismanufactured using services operations and machines it is possible toachieve this condition. We assume that product life cycles are sufficientlystable to interest heavily on the automate flow lines to achieve reduces castper unit. Product layouts ate designed so that the assembly tasks areperformed in the sequence they aredesigned at each station continuously. The finished item came out at the endof the line.In automated assembly lines the moving pallets move the materialsfrom station to station and moving arms pick up parts, place them atspecified place and system them by perusing, riveting, & crewing or evenwelding. Sensors will keep track of their activities and move the assembles tothe next stage. The machines are arranged in a sequence to performoperations according to the technical requirements.

The tools are loaded, movements are effected, speeds controlledautomatically without the need for worker’s involvement.The flexibility leads to better utilization of the equipments. It reduces thenumbers of systems and rids in reduction of investment as well as a spaceneeded to install them. One of the major cancers of modern manufacturingsystems is to be able to respond to market demands which haveuncertainties.Prototyping is a process by which a new product is developed in smallnumber so as to determine the suitability of the materials, study the variousmethods of manufactured, type of machinery required and developtechniques to over come problems that my be encountered when full scalemanufacture is undertaken.Prototypes do meet the specification of the component that enters a productand performance can be measured on these. It helps in con be reforming thedesign and any shortcomings can be rectified at low cost.Flexibility has three dimensions in the manufacturing field. They are variety,volume and time. There demands will have to be satisfied. In that sense theybecome constraints which restrict the maximization of productivity. Everybusiness will have to meet the market demands of its various products invariety volumes of different time.Flexibility is also needed to be able to develop new products or makeimprovements in the products fast enough to cater to shifting marker needs.Manufacturing systems have flexibility built into them to enable organizationmeet global demand. You have understood how the latest trends inmanufacturing when implemented help firms to stay a head in business


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