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5. Define project cycle, project management, and scope of project.List thevarious project management knowledge areas? What are thereasons forfailure of a project?

Ans:-
Project Cycle
– A project cycle basically consists of the various activities of operations, resources and the limitations imposed on them.
Definition of “Project Management”
It is the practice of controlling the use of resources, such as cost, time,anpower, hardware and software involved in a project, that start with aproblem statement and end with delivery of a complete product. Projectmanagement involves understanding its scope and various processes in theproject cycle.Project Management DefinitionAs per PMBOK (Project Management — Body of Knowledge,defined by PMI – Project Management Institute) :“Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools andtechniques to project activities to meet project requirements.As per DIN 69901 (German Organization for Standardization):“Projectmanagement is the complete set of tasks, techniques, tools applied duringproject execution”Scope – It refers to the various parameters that affect the project in itsplanning, formulation and executions,Like:-The range of one's perceptions, thoughts, or actions. Breadth or opportunityto function. See Synonyms at room. The area covered by a given activity orsubject. See Synonyms at range.
The length or sweep of a mooring cable.
Informal A viewing instrument such as a periscope, microscope, or telescope.Before knowing the reasons of failure we have to know about project.Project is a set of activities which are networked in order and aimedtowards achieving goal of a project.Now, the reasons are project failure:Incidence of Project failureProjects being initiated of random at all levelsProject objective not in line with business objectiveProject management not observedProject manager with no prior experience in the related projectNon- dedicated teamLack of complete support from clientsFactors contributing to project success not emphasized:Project objective in alignment with business objective

Working within the framework of project management methodology Effectivescoping planning, estimation, execution, controls and reviews, projectbottlenecksCommunication and managing expectations effectively with clients,team merits and stake holdersPrior expectance of PM in a similar project
Overview of information and communication Technologies (ICT)project:
i) Involve information and communication technologies such as the word wideweb, e-mail, fiber-optics satellites.ii) Enable societies to produce, access, adapt and apply information in greateramount, more rapidly and at reduce casts.iii) Offer enormous opportunities for enhancing business and economicviability.iv) Common problems encountered during projects.v) No prioritization of project activity from an organizational position.vi) One or more of the stages in the project mishandled.vii) Less qualified non-dedicated manpower.viii) Absence of smooth flow of communication between the involved parties.These basic reasons lead a project to failures. In the project failures businessmanagement and project management is directly involved. From themanagement point of view it is basic things to care above topics to success of a project. Project is the core business of a company.


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